About Game

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About Game

Post by Ninja SAGA Cheater on Wed Jun 01, 2011 11:02 pm

For other uses, see [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
"Level (gaming)" redirects here. For the classification of video game stages, see [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment.




[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

The Card Players, a 1895 painting by [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] depicting a game of cards.





A game is structured [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], usually undertaken for [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and sometimes used as an [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] tool. Games are distinct from [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], which is usually carried out for [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and from [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.],
which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements.
However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also
considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator
sports/games) or art (such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or games involving an artistic layout such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or some [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]).
Key components of games are goals, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], serve as a form of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or otherwise perform an [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] role. According to [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], the requirement for player interaction puts activities such as jigsaw puzzles and solitaire "games" into the category of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] rather than games.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
Attested as early as 2600 BC,[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are some of the oldest known games.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
Definitions


Ludwig Wittgenstein


[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.],[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Wittgenstein demonstrated that the elements of games, such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], rules, and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], all fail to adequately define what games are. Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances.
Roger Caillois


French sociologist [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], in his book Les jeux et les hommes (Games and Men),[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics:

  • fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character
  • separate: it is circumscribed in time and place
  • uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable
  • non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful
  • governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life
  • fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality

Chris Crawford


Computer game designer [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] attempted to define the term game[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] using a series of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]:

  1. Creative expression is [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] if made for its own beauty, and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] if made for [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
  2. A piece of entertainment is a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] if it is [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment.
  3. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. (Crawford notes that by his definition, (a) a toy can become a game element if the player makes up rules, and (b) [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are toys, not games.) If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge.
  4. If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete," it is a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]; if there is one, it is a conflict. (Crawford admits that this is a subjective test. Video games with noticeably [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] can be played as puzzles; these include the patterns used to evade [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].)
  5. Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not
    attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. (Competitions include [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].) However, if attacks are allowed, then the conflict qualifies as a game.

Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive,
goal-oriented activity, with active agents to play against, in which
players (including active agents) can interfere with each other.
Other definitions



  • "A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial
    conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome." ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
  • "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal." ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] According to this definitions, some "games" that do not involve choices, such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are not technically games any more than a slot machine is.
  • "A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context." ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
  • "At its most elementary level then we can define game as an exercise
    of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between
    forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a
    disequilibrial outcome." ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
  • "A game is a form of play with goals and structure." ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Gameplay elements and classification


Games can be characterized by "what the player does."[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] This is often referred to as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that
define the overall context of game and that in turn produce skill,
strategy, and chance.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]
Tools


Games are often classified by the components required to play them (e.g. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]). In places where the use of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
is well established, the ball has been a popular game piece throughout
recorded history, resulting in a worldwide popularity of ball games such
as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Other tools are more idiosyncratic to a certain region. Many countries in Europe, for instance, have unique standard decks of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Other games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] may be traced primarily through the development and evolution of its game pieces.
Many game tools are tokens, meant to represent other things. A token may be a pawn on a board, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or an intangible item such as a point scored.
Games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
do not utilise any obvious tool; rather, their interactivity is defined
by the environment. Games with the same or similar rules may have
different gameplay if the environment is altered. For example,
hide-and-seek in a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] building differs from the same game in a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]; an [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] can be radically different depending on the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] course, even with the same cars.
Rules


Whereas games are often characterized by their tools, they are often defined by their rules. While rules are [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], enough change in the rules usually results in a "new" game. For instance, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] can be played with "real" baseballs or with [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
However, if the players decide to play with only three bases, they are
arguably playing a different game. There are exceptions to this in that [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] deliberately involve the changing of their own rules, but even then there are often immutable [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]-rules.
Rules generally determine turn order, the rights and responsibilities
of the players, and each player’s goals. Player rights may include when
they may spend resources or move tokens. Common win conditions are
being first to amass a certain quota of points or tokens (as in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]), having the greatest number of tokens at the end of the game (as in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]), or some relationship of one’s game tokens to those of one’s opponent (as in chess's [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]).
Skill, strategy, and chance


A game’s tools and rules will result in its requiring [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or a combination thereof, and are classified accordingly.
[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] include games of physical skill, such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and games of mental skill such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] include checkers, chess, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and often require special equipment to play them. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] include gambling games ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], etc.), as well as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]; most require equipment such as cards or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. However, most games contain two or all three of these elements. For example, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] involve both physical skill and strategy while [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] combine strategy and chance. Many card and board games combine all three; most [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] involve mental skill, strategy, and an element of chance, as do many strategic board games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Single-player games


Most games require multiple players. However, single-player games are
unique in respect to the type of challenges a player faces. Unlike a
game with multiple players competing with or against each other to reach
the game's goal, a one-player game is a battle solely against an
element of the environment (an artificial opponent), against one's own
skills, against time, or against chance. Playing with a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or playing [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] against a wall is not generally recognized as playing a game due to the lack of any formidable opposition.
It is not valid to describe a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] where the computer provides opposition. If the computer is merely record-keeping, then the game may be validly single-player.
Many games described as "single-player" may be termed actually puzzles or recreations.
Types

See also: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Games can take a variety of forms, from competitive [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] to [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Sports

Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] is a popular sport worldwide.





Many sports require special equipment and dedicated playing fields,
leading to the involvement of a community much larger than the group of
players. A [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] may set aside such resources for the organization of sports leagues.
Popular sports may have [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
who are entertained just by watching games. A community will often
align itself with a local sports team that supposedly represents it
(even if the team or most of its players only recently moved in); they
often align themselves against their opponents or have traditional
rivalries. The concept of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] began with sports fans.
[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] cited[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]] the balls and strikes of baseball as a clear example of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], the operation of rules on the game's tools. While the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
target is governed by the rules of the game, it epitomizes the category
of things that exist only because people have agreed to treat them as
real. No pitch is a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] until it has been labeled as such by an appropriate authority, the plate [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], whose judgment on this matter cannot be challenged within the current game.
Certain competitive sports, such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], are not games by definitions such as Crawford's (see above) — despite the inclusion of many in the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] — because competitors do not interact with their opponents; they simply challenge each other in indirect ways.
Lawn games


[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are outdoor games that can be played on a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]; an area of mowed grass (or alternately, on graded soil) generally smaller than a "field" or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Variations of many games that are traditionally played on a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] as "lawn games" for home use in a front or back yard. Common lawn games include [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Tabletop games

Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

A tabletop game generally refers to any game where the elements of
play are confined to a small area and that require little physical
exertion, usually simply placing, picking up and moving game pieces.
Most of these games are, thus, played at a table around which the
players are seated and on which the game's elements are located. A
variety of major game types generally fall under the heading of tabletop
games. It is worth noting that many games falling into this category,
particularly [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.],
are more free-form in their play and can involve physical activity such
as mime, however the basic premise is still that the game does not
require a large area in which to play it, large amounts of strength or
stamina, or specialized equipment other than what comes in the box
(games sometimes require additional materials like pencil and paper that
are easy to procure).
Dexterity/coordination games


This class of games includes any game in which the skill element
involved relates to manual dexterity or hand-eye coordination, but
excludes the class of video games (see below). Games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] require only very portable or improvised equipment and can be played on any flat level surface, while other examples, such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
require specialized tables or other self-contained modules on which the
game is played. The advent of home video game systems largely replaced
some of these, such as table hockey, however air hockey, billiards,
pinball and foosball remain popular fixtures in private and public game
rooms. These games and others, as they require reflexes and
coordination, are generally performed more poorly by intoxicated persons
but are unlikely to result in injury because of this; as such the games
are popular as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. In addition, dedicated drinking games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] also involve physical coordination and are popular for similar reasons.
Board games

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] is an American adaptation of a board game originating in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].




Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Board games use as a central tool a board on which the players'
status, resources, and progress are tracked using physical tokens. Many
also involve [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
and/or cards. Most games that simulate war are board games (though a
large number of video games have been created to simulate strategic
combat; see "Video Games" below), and the board may be a map on which
the players' tokens move. Virtually all board games involve "turn-based"
play; one player contemplates and then makes a move, then the next
player does the same, and a player can only act on their turn. This is
opposed to "real-time" play as is found in some card games, most sports
and most video games.
Some games, such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.],
are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for
their interest. Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very
luck-based, with games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] having virtually no decisions to be made. By some definitions, such as that by ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]), they are not games since there are no decisions to make to effect the outcome.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Most other board games combine strategy and luck factors; the game of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] requires players to decide the best strategic move based on the roll of two [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a person gets. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are notable for often having rather less of a luck factor than many board games.
Board game groups include [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] games, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], as well as the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
and German-style board games mentioned above. Some board games fall
into multiple groups and even incorporate elements of other genres: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
is one popular example, where players must succeed in each of four main
skills: artistry, live performance, trivia, and language skill.
Card games

Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
Further information: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Card games use a deck of cards as their central tool. These cards may be a standard [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (52-card) deck of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (such as for [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], etc.), a regional deck using 32, 36 or 40 cards and different suit signs (such as for the popular German game [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]), a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] of 78 cards (used in Europe to play a variety of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] collectively known as Tarot, Tarock, and/or Tarocchi games), or a deck specific to the individual game (such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
are examples of games that were originally played with a standard deck
and have since been commercialized with customized decks. Some [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are played with a small selection of cards that have been collected or purchased individually from large available sets.
Some board games include a deck of cards as a gameplay element,
normally for randomization and/or to keep track of game progress.
Conversely, some card games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
use a board with movers, normally to keep score. The differentiation
between the two genres in such cases depends on which element of the
game is foremost in its play; a board game using cards for random
actions can usually use some other method of randomization, while
Cribbage can just as easily be scored on paper. These elements as used
are simply the traditional and easiest methods to achieve their purpose.
Dice games

Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Dice games use a number of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
as their central element. Board games often use dice for a
randomization element, and thus each roll of the dice has a profound
impact on the outcome of the game, however dice games are differentiated
in that the dice do not determine the success or failure of some other
element of the game; they instead are the central indicator of the
person's standing in the game. Popular dice games include [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]/[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. As dice are, by their very nature, designed to produce [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.],
these games usually involve a high degree of luck, which can be
directed to some extent by the player through more strategic elements of
play and through tenets of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Such games are thus popular as gambling games; the game of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] is perhaps the most famous example, though Liar's dice and Poker dice were originally conceived of as gambling games.
Domino and tile games

Main articles: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Domino games are similar in many respects to card games, but the generic device is instead a set of tiles called [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.],
which traditionally each have two ends, each with a given number of
dots, or "pips", and each combination of two possible end values as it
appears on a tile is unique in the set. The games played with dominoes
largely center around playing a domino from the player's "hand" onto the
matching end of another domino, and the overall object could be to
always be able to make a play, to make all open endpoints sum to a given
number or multiple, or simply to play all dominoes from one's hand onto
the board. Sets vary in the number of possible dots on one end, and
thus of the number of combinations and pieces; the most common set
historically is double-six, though in more recent times "extended" sets such as double-nine have been introduced to increase the number of dominoes available, which allows larger hands and more players in a game. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are very popular domino games. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] is a domino game more similar in its play to a "trick-taking" [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Variations of traditional dominoes abound: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are similar in theory but are triangular and thus have three values per tile. Similarly, a game known as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] uses four-sided tiles.
Some other games use tiles in place of cards; [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] is a variant of the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] card game family that uses tiles numbered in ascending rank among four colors, very similar to Anglo-American [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] is another game very similar to [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] that uses a set of tiles with card-like values and art.
Lastly, some games use graphical tiles to form a board layout, on which other elements of the game are played. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
are examples. In each, the "board" is made up of a series of tiles; in
Settlers of Catan the starting layout is random but static, while in
Carcassonne the game is played by "building" the board tile-by-tile. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], an abstract strategy game using tiles as moving pieces, has mechanical and strategic elements similar to [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], although it has no board; the pieces themselves both form the layout and can move within it.
Pencil and paper games


Pencil and paper games require little or no specialized equipment
other than writing materials, though some such games have been
commercialized as board games ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], for instance, is based on the idea of a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
sets with a boxed grid and pieces are available commercially). These
games vary widely, from games centering on a design being drawn such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and "connect-the-dots" games like [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], to letter and word games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], to solitaire and logic puzzle games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Guessing games


A guessing game has as its core a piece of information that one
player knows, and the object is to coerce others into guessing that
piece of information without actually divulging it in text or spoken
word. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
is probably the most well-known game of this type, and has spawned
numerous commercial variants that involve differing rules on the type of
communication to be given, such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and similar. The genre also includes many [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Video games

Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Video games are [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]- or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]-controlled games. Computers can create virtual tools to be used in a game between human (or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])
opponents, such as cards or dice, or can simulate far more elaborate
worlds where mundane or fantastic things can be manipulated through
gameplay.
A computer or video game uses one or more [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], typically a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]/[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] combination (on [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]); a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and/or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]); or a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or a motion sensitive tool. ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]). More esoteric devices such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
have also been used for input. In computer games, the evolution of user
interfaces from simple keyboard to mouse, joystick or joypad has
profoundly changed the nature of game development.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]
There are many genres of video game; the first commercial video game, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], was a simple simulation of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
As processing power increased, new genres such as adventure and action
games were developed that involved a player guiding a character from a
third person perspective through a series of obstacles. This "real-time"
element cannot be easily reproduced by a board game, which is generally
limited to "turn-based" strategy; this advantage allows video games to
simulate situations such as combat more realistically. Additionally, the
playing of a video game does not require the same physical skill,
strength and/or danger as a real-world representation of the game, and
can provide either very realistic, exaggerated or impossible physics,
allowing for elements of a fantastical nature, games involving physical
violence, or simulations of sports. Lastly, a computer can, with varying
degrees of success, simulate one or more human opponents in traditional
table games such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], leading to simulations of such games that can be played by a single player.
In more open-ended computer simulations, also known as sandbox-style
games, the game provides a virtual environment in which the player may
be free to do whatever they like within the confines of this universe.
Sometimes, there is a lack of goals or opposition, which has stirred
some debate on whether these should be considered "games" or "toys".
(Crawford specifically mentions [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]’s [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] as an example of a toy.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])
Online games

Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

From the very earliest days of networked and time-shared computers, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] have been part of the culture. Early commercial systems such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] were at least as widely famous for their games as for their strictly educational value. In 1958, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] dominated Visitor's Day and drew attention to the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] at the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]; during the 1980s, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] was known mainly for [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], which was offered as a hands-on demo to visitors.
Modern online games are played using an Internet connection; some have dedicated [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] programs, while [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] require only a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Some simpler browser games appeal to demographic groups (notably [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]) that otherwise play very few video games.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]
Media audiences’ characteristic has been changing in consequence of
the social changes and development. They are becoming active and
interact more than ever before. The players of the game in this
phenomenon are just like the social formation in our society. They are
both self-regulating, creating their own social norms and subject to
regulation and constraint through the code of the game and sometimes
through the policing of the game by those who run it. The values that
are policed vary from game to game. Many of the values encoded into game
cultures reflect offline cultural values, but games also offer a chance
to emphasise alternative or subjugated values in the name of fantasy
and play. The players of the game at the new century are now apparently
expressing their profound self through the game. When they can play with
their anonymous status, they are found to be more confident to express
and to step out from the position they have never been out from. It
offers new experiences and pleasures based in the interactive and
immersible possibilities of computer technologies.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]
Role-playing games

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Role-playing games, often abbreviated as RPGs, are a type of game in
which the participants (usually) assume the roles of characters acting
in a fictional setting. The original role playing games—or at least
those explicitly marketed as such—are played with a handful of
participants, usually face-to-face, and keep track of the developing
fiction with pen and paper. Together, the players may collaborate on a
story involving those characters; create, develop, and "explore" the
setting; or vicariously experience an adventure outside the bounds of
everyday life. Pen-and-paper role-playing games include, for example, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
The term role-playing game has also been appropriated by the video game industry to describe [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
These may be single-player games where one player experiences a
programmed environment and story, or they may allow players to interact
through the internet. The experience is usually quite different from
traditional role-playing games. Single-player games include [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Online multi-player games, often referred to as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or MMORPGs, include [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. As of 2009[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], the most successful MMORPG has been [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], which controls the vast majority of the market.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
Business games

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Business games can take a variety of forms, from interactive board
games to interactive games involving different props (balls, ropes,
hoops, etc.) and different kinds of activities. The purpose of these
games is to link to some aspect of organizational performance and to
generate discussions about business improvement. Many business games
focus on torganizational behaviors. Some of these are computer
simulations while others are simple designs for play and debriefing.
Team building is a common focus of such activities.
Simulation

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The term "game" can include simulation[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or re-enactment of various activities or use in "real life" for various purposes: e.g., [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], analysis, prediction. Well-known examples are [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. The root of this meaning may originate in the human prehistory of games deduced by [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] from observing [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], in which children's games mimic the activities of adults to a significant degree: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], etc. These kinds of games are preserved in modern times.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]
See also


[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]


Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]


References




  1. ^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (2003). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. New Riders. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
  2. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Soubeyrand, Catherine (2000). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  3. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Green, William (2008-06-19). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. 2008 Summer Journey ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  4. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. 2006. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  5. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (1953/2002). Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Blackwell. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
  6. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (1957). Les jeux et les hommes. Gallimard.
  7. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]; [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (2003). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]: Game Design Fundamentals. MIT Press. p. 80. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
  8. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (1994). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Retrieved 2008-08-17
  9. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Serious Games. Viking Press. 1970. p. 6. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
  10. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Avedon, Elliot; [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (1971). The Study of Games. J. Wiley. p. 405. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
  11. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Maroney, Kevin (2001). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. The Games Journal. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Retrieved 2008-08-17
  12. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (1994). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Retrieved 2008-08-17
  13. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Woodcock, Bruce Sterling (2008). [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
  14. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Archived from [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] on 2008-02-05. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
  15. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Playburg.com. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
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